Vitamin D and Respiratory Infections

A walk on the beach in Maui. (Dr. Noorali Bharwani)
A walk on the beach in Maui. (Dr. Noorali Bharwani)

A research article in the British Medical Journal (BMJ February 15, 2017) says vitamin D supplementation is safe and it protects you against acute respiratory tract infection.

The object of the study was to assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect.

The researchers looked at the results of 25 eligible randomized controlled trials (total 11,321 participants, aged 0 to 95 years).

They found vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants.

The article says acute respiratory tract infections are a major cause of global morbidity and mortality and are responsible for 10 per cent of ambulatory and emergency department visits in the USA and an estimated 2.65 million deaths worldwide in 2013.

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with many conditions, including bone loss, kidney disease, lung disorders, diabetes, stomach and intestine problems, and heart disease. Vitamin D supplementation has been found to help prevent or treat vitamin D deficiency.

Vitamin D, often called the sunshine vitamin, is mainly obtained from sun exposure of our skin. However, Canadians are not getting enough of sunshine vitamins. Supplements are necessary to obtain adequate levels because a person’s diet has minimal impact, says Osteoporosis Canada website (New Vitamins D Guidelines 2010).

“Canadians are at risk of vitamin D deficiency from October to April because winter sunlight in northern latitudes does not allow for adequate vitamin D production,” says Julie Foley, president & CEO of Osteoporosis Canada. She goes on to say that because vitamin D requirements for an individual may vary considerably depending on many factors, it’s very important to check with your physician about how much vitamin D you should be taking.

Vitamin D is essential to the treatment of osteoporosis because it promotes calcium absorption from the diet and is necessary for normal bone growth. Some research suggests it may also ward off immune diseases, infection and cancer.

How much vitamin D should you take each day?

The new guidelines recommend daily supplements of vitamin D 400 to 1000 IU for adults under age 50 without osteoporosis or conditions affecting vitamin D absorption. For adults over 50, supplements of between 800 and 2000 IU are recommended.

Coming back to our topic – Do vitamin D supplements help prevent respiratory tract infections?

An editorial comment in the British Medical Journal (15 February 2017) says clinically useful effect of vitamin D on respiratory infection remains uncertain despite hints in the new analysis mentioned earlier in this column.

The editorial goes on to say, “Eight trial level meta-analyses have examined this topic since 2012, with conflicting findings: three reported benefits and five no consistent benefits.” The editorial conclusion is… we need more trials to prove the point that vitamin D supplements protect against respiratory infection.

In the meantime there is no reason to avoid taking vitamin D everyday as indicated earlier. There is no doubt vitamin D is required for many more reasons than just preventing lung infection.

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Our Seductive Desire for a Magic Pill

Sunset on a desert tour of Dubai. (Dr. Noorali Bharwani)
Sunset on a desert tour of Dubai. (Dr. Noorali Bharwani)

There are so many pills in the market that are touted as “magic pills” to keep you healthy, make you strong and boost your physical and sexual powers. But are they any good? Are they safe?

Health supplements are a $1.4-billion industry in Canada, but product testing is questionable, says a CBC report. Supplement products have increased dramatically, from about 4,000 types in 1994 to more than 55,000 in 2012. Roughly half of all US adults say they have used at least one supplement in the past month, most commonly vitamins.

Health Canada confessed to CBC’s Fifth Estate program that most herbal and vitamin supplements are approved for sale in Canada on “weak evidence”. The report also says more than 90 per cent of new products are approved within 10 days.

There is intense pressure from the supplements industry, anxious to cash in on the latest health-care trends. About three-quarters of Canadians regularly take natural health products such as vitamins, minerals, fish oil and herbal remedies, a 2010 Ipsos-Reid survey found.

Research in New Zealand published earlier this year found that 83 per cent of fish oil supplements tested exceeded maximum industry standards for rancidity. And recent tests by CBC’s Marketplace showed that four of seven fish oil supplements tested showed signs of rancidity.

Products for weight loss or increased energy accounted for the most ER visits. These products caused 72 per cent of problems involving chest pain or irregular or too-fast heartbeats, and they were the culprits in more than half of visits among patients ages 5 to 34. Bodybuilding and sexual-enhancement products also led to cardiac symptoms in many seeking ER help.

Marketplace (November 12, 2015) also found Vitamin C products make illegal claims. Canadians are constantly misled into thinking Vitamin C fights colds. Marketplace found Vitamin C products that make health claims are not allowed by Health Canada. While independent testing is done in the US to verify the accuracy of supplement ingredients, similar testing is not done in Canada. So what you take may not be safe.

University of Guelph botanist Steven Newmaster and his team conducted DNA tests on 44 herbal supplements bought in Canada and the US. Their study, published in the journal BMC Medicine in October 2013, found that nearly 60 per cent of the supplements contained ingredients not listed on the label and 32 per cent were outright frauds.

Subsequently, New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman commissioned his own DNA tests of supplements sold by four major chains in the US. His study produced even more disturbing results, and Schneiderman ordered the retailers to stop selling the supplements, says CBC report. But no action by Health Canada.

The New England Journal of Medicine (October 2015) says supplements send 23,000 people to hospitals each year in the US. Products for weight loss or increased energy accounted for the most ER visits. So be careful before you consume any supplement not ordered by your doctor.

Best thing you can do for yourself is to exercise regularly, eat lots of fruits and vegetables, eat fish, meditate and do yoga. Don’t be seduced by a magic pill!

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Herbal remedies and vitamin supplements can be good, bad and ugly.

Cloud Gate, nicknamed The Bean, in Millenium Park, Chicago. (Dr. Noorali Bharwani)
Cloud Gate, nicknamed The Bean, in Millenium Park, Chicago. (Dr. Noorali Bharwani)

Recent CBC investigation report (Fifth Estate) revealed that herbal remedies and vitamins are frequently approved for sale in Canada with only minimal review. Even Health Canada acknowledges that their approval of these products is based on “weak evidence,” says the CBC report. That indeed is shocking.

The CBC report indicates that Health Canada approves more than 90 per cent of applications to sell new natural health products. And under updated rules, products can be approved in as little as 10 days.

Are we fully aware of the quality and safety of many of these supplements? The answer is no. We don’t. U.S. statistics show supplements send 23,000 people to hospital each year. Annual sales in Canada total about $1.4 billion, and Health Canada’s Natural and Non-Prescription Health Products directorate must approve supplements before they go on sale.

According to the CBC report, some leading researchers also say there is mounting evidence that many of the most popular supplements don’t live up to their claims and could even be dangerous. Common complaints about these products included contamination, purposeful adulteration, incorrect strength and incorrect identity.

Medically speaking a healthy individual, who eats a good diet, does not require vitamin supplements. But almost 30 percent of our population does not follow that dictum.

On the other hand, there is a consensus among medical experts that taking certain vitamin supplements on a daily basis does more good than harm.

Here are some examples:

  1. Folic acid (400 ug/day) reduces the risk of birth defects during pregnancy.
  2. Multivitamin tablet – one a day. Vitamin B such as B6 and B12, may help lower blood levels of a substance called homocysteine that may help reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  3. Vitamin D (1000 – 2000 IU/day) minimizes the risk of osteoporosis and fractures and colon and breast cancer.
  4. Omega-3 fatty acids – 1000 mg/day or eat fish three times a week. This reduces the risk of sudden heart attack by 50 to 80 per cent. It can help ward off the serious heart rhythm disturbances associated with sudden cardiac death. It also appears to reduce the risk of strokes, mental decline in old age and prostate cancer.

In summary, one multivitamin, vitamin D and omega-3 should cover what you need if you are otherwise healthy. Remember, this is just a guideline. Discuss with your family doctor before you start these pills. If you opt to use herbal remedies for prevention or treatment of an illness check whether there is any science associated with the recommendation.

Vitamin supplement is just an icing on the cake – so to speak. Too much of icing and/or too much of cake is not good for your health!

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The Importance of Vitamins in Our Diet

Tablets. (iStockphoto/Thinkstock)
Tablets. (iStockphoto/Thinkstock)

In general, most people know the importance of vitamins in our diet. But many people do not know which vitamins are really important in maintaining good health.

I would like to revisit an article I had discussed about ten years ago on this topic. Not much has changed since. The topic was also discussed in a Clinical Practice article in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) titled, “What vitamins should I be taking, doctor?”

Medical teaching says that a healthy individual, who eats a good diet, does not require vitamin supplements. He should be able to meet his vitamin needs from his healthy diet. But the public interest in vitamin supplements is enormous – sometimes due to misguided reasons. Almost 30 percent of our population takes vitamin supplements. And there is no control over it.

Because the food we eat contains too many nutrients, it would be almost impossible to conduct double blind trials to see if vitamins do have improved clinical outcomes. Also the users of vitamin supplements may have healthier lifestyles or behaviours than nonusers. This would distort any clinical trial results.

The good thing about vitamin supplements is that there is greater likelihood of good than harm and cost of supplements is not that high so the authors of the article in the NEJM recommend the following vitamin supplements for healthy individuals. There is substantial evidence that higher intake of:
1. folic acid (400 ug/day),
2. vitamin B6 (2 mg/day),
3. vitamin B12 (6 ug/day), and
4. vitamin D (400 IU/day) will benefit many people, and a
5. a multivitamin will ensure an adequate intake of other vitamins for which the evidence of benefit is indirect.

The authors say a multivitamin is especially important:
-for women who might become pregnant
-for persons who regularly consume one or two alcoholic drinks per day
-for the elderly, who tend to absorb vitamin B12 poorly and are often deficient in vitamin D
-for vegetarians, who require supplemental vitamin B12 and
-for poor urban residents, who may be unable to afford adequate intakes of fruits and vegetables.

It should be noted that recent recommendation for vitamin D suggests all adults should take 1,000 to 2,000 IU daily. The upper level for safe vitamin D intake has not been well defined but is probably as high as 250 μg (10,000 IU) daily but in clinical practice, supplementation with this dose of vitamin D is rarely required.

Physicians who encourage their patients to take vitamin supplements should also educate their patients regarding healthy lifestyle and about healthy nutritious diet. Foods contain many additional important components, such as fiber and essential fatty acids and vitamin pills cannot be a substitute. Vitamin pills do not compensate for the massive risks associated with smoking, obesity, or inactivity, say the authors of the NEJM.

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