Vitamin D and Respiratory Infections

A research article in the British Medical Journal (BMJ February 15, 2017) says vitamin D supplementation is safe and it protects you against acute respiratory tract infection.

The object of the study was to assess the overall effect of vitamin D supplementation on risk of acute respiratory tract infection, and to identify factors modifying this effect.

The researchers looked at the results of 25 eligible randomized controlled trials (total 11,321 participants, aged 0 to 95 years).

They found vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of acute respiratory tract infection among all participants.

The article says acute respiratory tract infections are a major cause of global morbidity and mortality and are responsible for 10 per cent of ambulatory and emergency department visits in the USA and an estimated 2.65 million deaths worldwide in 2013.

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with many conditions, including bone loss, kidney disease, lung disorders, diabetes, stomach and intestine problems, and heart disease. Vitamin D supplementation has been found to help prevent or treat vitamin D deficiency.

Vitamin D, often called the sunshine vitamin, is mainly obtained from sun exposure of our skin. However, Canadians are not getting enough of sunshine vitamins. Supplements are necessary to obtain adequate levels because a person’s diet has minimal impact, says Osteoporosis Canada website (New Vitamins D Guidelines 2010).

“Canadians are at risk of vitamin D deficiency from October to April because winter sunlight in northern latitudes does not allow for adequate vitamin D production,” says Julie Foley, president & CEO of Osteoporosis Canada. She goes on to say that because vitamin D requirements for an individual may vary considerably depending on many factors, it’s very important to check with your physician about how much vitamin D you should be taking.

Vitamin D is essential to the treatment of osteoporosis because it promotes calcium absorption from the diet and is necessary for normal bone growth. Some research suggests it may also ward off immune diseases, infection and cancer.

How much vitamin D should you take each day?

The new guidelines recommend daily supplements of vitamin D 400 to 1000 IU for adults under age 50 without osteoporosis or conditions affecting vitamin D absorption. For adults over 50, supplements of between 800 and 2000 IU are recommended.

Coming back to our topic – Do vitamin D supplements help prevent respiratory tract infections?

An editorial comment in the British Medical Journal (15 February 2017) says clinically useful effect of vitamin D on respiratory infection remains uncertain despite hints in the new analysis mentioned earlier in this column.

The editorial goes on to say, “Eight trial level meta-analyses have examined this topic since 2012, with conflicting findings: three reported benefits and five no consistent benefits.” The editorial conclusion is… we need more trials to prove the point that vitamin D supplements protect against respiratory infection.

In the meantime there is no reason to avoid taking vitamin D everyday as indicated earlier. There is no doubt vitamin D is required for many more reasons than just preventing lung infection.

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