Do you believe that if it tastes that good, it cant be healthy? I do!
Do you believe in Benjamin Franklins maxim early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise? I do except for the wealthy part!
Well, if you think the way I do then we may need to change. Do you want to know why? Then read this and surprise yourself.
1. Life is sweet: candy consumption and longevity
This paper appeared in the British Medical Journal. It was picked up by Associated Press and published as a news item in the Medicine Hat News recently.
The authors are from the Harvard School of Public Health. They feel that since candy (sugar candy and chocolates) has existed for centuries, it cannot be totally unhealthy. They decided to investigate whether candy consumption was associated with longevity.
The authors note that an American consumes 5.4kg of sugar candy and 6.5kg of chocolates annually.
The subjects of the study were 7841 healthy men entering Harvard University as undergraduates between 1916 and 1950. In 1988, these men were surveyed about their health habits (smoking etc) and candy consumption. Death certificates for men who died up to the end of 1993 were obtained.
The authors found that a man who does not consume any candies is older, leaner and more likely to smoke. He drinks more, ate less red meat and vegetables or green salad, and is more likely to take vitamin or mineral supplements.
They also found that consumption of candy was associated with greater longevity. This could be due to the presence of antioxidant phenol (a substance known to decrease the risk of coronary heart disease) in the chocolates. A 41g piece of chocolate contains about the same amount of antioxidant phenol as a glass of red wine.
It is interesting to note that greater consumption of candy (3 or more times a week) did not progressively lower mortality. In fact, the lowest mortality was amongst those who consumed candy in moderation (1-3 times a month).
Of course, the authors had vested interest in the study. They confess to a weakness for chocolates and consume to an average of one bar a day each!
2. Larks and owls and health, wealth, and wisdom
This study was funded in the United Kingdom by the Department of Health and Social Services and published in the British Medical Journal. Object of the study was to test the validity of Benjamin Franklins maxim early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.
1229 men and women aged 65 and over took part in the survey. A lark was defined as a person who went to bed before 11pm and was up before 8am. An owl went to bed at or after 11pm and was up at or after 8am.
The authors, from Southampton University, looked at several outcome measures- income, standard of living, state of health and mortality during 23 years of follow up.
Their conclusions? The findings did not support Franklins claim. A late to bed and late to rise lifestyle has no adverse effect. What is interesting is that sleeping for more than 8 hours a night was associated with increased mortality.
Authors final comment: There is no justification for early risers to affect moral superiority.
Start reading the preview of my book A Doctor's Journey for free on Amazon. Available on Kindle for $2.99!